英语基本句型有五个：S+V, S+V+Cs, S+V+O, S+V+Oi+Od, S+V+Od+Co, 其共有特征是主谓结构(S+V)。
●Pattern 1 (S + V)
1． 此句型中，“V” 是不及物动词，后面无宾语，如：
My right arm hurts.
She lived happily.
The sun rises every morning.
(I) Hope to see you again soon.（省略主语）
Who called? Jane (did).（省略谓语）
●Pattern 2 (S + V + Cs)
1． 此句型的 “V” 是连系动词，“Cs” 是主语补语，或称表语。充当主语补语的有名词、代词、形容词、副词、数词、介词短语、动词 V-ing 形式或 V-ed 形式、不定式及名词性从句等，如：
My first name is Bill.
Life is colorful.
Seeing is believing.
Our belief is that things will improve.
b. 表示“变得”、“成为”：become, come, go, fall, get, grow, prove, turn 等；
c. 表示“保持着某一状态”：hold, keep, lie, remain, rest, sit, stay 等；
d. 表示“看起来”、“好像”：appear, look, seem 等；
e. 表示“实感”：feel, sound, taste, smell 等。
e.g. She is a teacher and I am a doctor.
Spring comes and all trees turn green.
He stayed awake all night.
You don’t look happy, what"s the matter?
Their plan sounds wonderful.
●Pattern 3 (S + V + O)
1． “V” 是及物动词，后面需跟一个宾语，可充当宾语的有名词、代词、数词、不定式、V-ing 结构及名词性从句等，如：
I understand the program.
She asked to see the manager.
Mary is considering changing her job.
He said that he would call me tomorrow.
2． 这种结构有时必须跟状语，意义才完整（即 S + V + O + A），如：
We accepted their advice in buying a new car.
She completed the assignment just as the bell was ringing.
We don’t trust him because he often lies.
You make a promise only when you know you can keep it.
●Pattern 4 (S + V + Oi + Od)
1． 此句型的 “V” 称为双宾及物动词，其后需跟间接宾语 “Oi”（通常指人）和直接宾语 “Od”（通常指物或事）。
2． 此类动词大都具有给与的意义，常见的有allow, assign, award, bring, buy, cause, choose, fetch, find, get, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, post, promise, read, recommend, refuse, render, return, sell, send, show, sing, take, telephone, touch, tell, throw, wish, write 等，如：
I gave him the book.
I’ll return you the dictionary soon.
(2) A:Hello.How are you?
B:Fine, thank you.And (how are)you?
A:Very well, thank you.
(3) A:Good morning/afternoon/evening.
B: Good morning/afternoon/evening.
(4) A:Hi, Jim!
B:Hi, Li Lei.Nice to meet you again！
(5) A:Hi, Sam!How are you today?
B:Oh, hello, Lin Tao.Fine, thanks.What about you?
(5) Please say hello to your parents.
Please give my best wishes to your parents.
①A:My name is Lin Yan.Glad to meet you.
B:Nice to meet you.My name is Li Lei.
②A:Excuse me.What’s your name, please?
B:My name is Robert Thomas Brown.
A:May I call your Robert?
①A:This is Mr Huang.
B:How do you do?
C:My name is Lin Ping.How do you do?/Nice to meet you.
②A:This is Mr.Huang.
B:Nice to meet you.
C:Glad to meet you.
①I am afraid I must be going now.
②I am afraid I must go now.
③I think it’s time for me to leave now.
④I think it’s time for us to go now.
Goodbye! Bye-bye! Bye! See you later! See you!
① Thank you./Thanks a lot./Thank you very much.
② Thank you for you help.
③ It’s very kind/nice of yoou.
④ Thank you all the same.
① It’s a pleasure./With my pleasure.
② That’s OK./That’s all right.
③ You’re welcome.
④ Not at all.
Excuse me, please! I beg your pardon.
Sorry. I’m sorry for… I’m sorrry that…
① Never mind.
② That’s OK./That’s all right.
③ It’s nothing.
④ It doesn’t matter.
① Will you come to my party?
② Would you like to go for a walk?
③ May I invite you to dinner?
④ How/What about going for a walk?
① Yes, I’d love/ike to.
② Yes.It’s very kind of you.
③ That would be nice.
No, thank you. I’d love/like to, but…
May I …? Can/Could I…?
Would mind if I smoke here?
Sure/Certainly. Yes, do please.
That’s all right. Of course, you can.
I’m afraid not. I’m sorry, but you mustn’t/can’t.
You’d better not.
Have a good day/time! Have a good journey/trip.
Good luck. Enjoy yourself! Best wishes to you!
Happy New Year! Merry Christmas! Well done!
Happy birthday! Congratulations!
Thank you. You, too. The same to you.
Can I help you ? Would you like me to help you ?
What can I do for you ? Let me help you .
Yes, please. Yes , thanks. Thank you for your help.
Thank you. That would be nice.
No, thanks/thank you.
That’s very nice of you, but I can’t manage it myself.
Are you free this morning/afternoon/evening?
Yes, I’ll be free then.
No, I won’t be free then.But I will be free tomorrow.
How about tomorrow morning?
Shall we meet at 3:00 at the school gate?
Yes, that’s all right. All right, see you then.
Hello! May I speak to…?
Is that …speaking? (注意：不能用Are you…?或Who are you)
Can I leave a message ?
I’ll call back later/again.
I’ll ring/call him/her up again.
Hello!This is Tom speaking. (注意：不能用I’m Tom)
Hello!Who is that？ Hold on, please!
Tom isn’t here right now. Sorry, but Tom is out.
Can I take a message for you ?
Sorry, I’m afraid you have the wrong number.
What would you like to have ?
Would you like something to drinnk ?
Help yourself to some chicken ?
Would you like some more rice ?
Yes, I’d like a drink. I’d like rice and chhicken.
Just a little, please. Can I have some more soup?
It’s so delicious.Thank you.
No, thank you.I’ve had enough.
I’m full , thank you.
What’s the matter? What’s wrong with you ?
Do you have a fever? How long have you felt like this?
It’s nothing serious. You’ll be all right/well soon.
Take this medicine three times a day.
I feel terrible/bad. I don’t feel well.
I’ve got a cold/cough/headache.
I’ve got a pain here.
There is something wrong with my eyes.
It hurts here. I can’t sleep well.
Can/May I help you？ What can I do for you?
What color/size/kind do you like?
What about this one? Here’s your change.
I want/would like a pair of shoes.
How much is it/are they? May I try it on?
It’s too small/big. Sorry, it’s too expensive.
Do you have any other colors/sizes/kinds?
That’s fine. I’ll take it.
Just have a look. Well, I’ll think about it.
Excuse me, where is the nearest post office?
Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the shop?
Excuse me, how can I get to the nearest shop?
Excuse me, which bus goes to People’s Park?
It’s over there. It’s about 500 meters from here.
Go down the street until you see the tall building.
Turn right/left at the first crossing/corner.
You can take bus No.103.
You’d better take a taxi.
Sorry, I don’t know.I’m a stranger here.
What’s the weather like today?
How is the weather in Beijing?
What a cold/hot day today!
It’s a nice/fine/beautiful day today.
It’s getting cool/cold/warm/hot.
Pardon?/I beg your pardon.
Sorry, I can’t follow you.
Could you speak again/more slowly?
I don’t know how to say that in English?
How do you spell it , please?
I’m sorry I only know a little English.
Don’t forget your raincoat. No smoking.
Remember to lock the door. Look out.
It’s dangerous. Be careful. Don’t touch.
You’d better go to see the doctor.
You should listen to and read English every day.
You need to buy a Chinese-English dictionary.
Let’s go and have a look.
What/How about a picnic this Sunday?
Why don’t you/Why not go to a movie?
Certainly. Sure. Of course. Yes, please.
Yes, I think so. All right. OK.
That’s a good idea. I agree with you.
No, I don’t think so. I’m afraid not.
I really can’t agree with you.
Yes, maybe. You may be right.
I wish to see you again. I hope to become a doctor.
I hope it stays fine. I hope so. I hope not.
Very good! Well done! Wonderful! Excellent!
You speak English very well. You dress is beautiful.
Come on! You can do it!
Thank you. OK, I’ll try it again.
How wonderful/nice! I’m happy.
I’m pleased to know that.
Really? Oh, dear! Is that so? What a surprise!
How nice to see you! I’m surprised.
What’s wrong? What’s the matter? Anything wrong?
What should we do? Are you worried about them?
Don’t be afraid. Don’t worry. It’ll be all right/OK.
Good! Well done! Perfect! That’s fine.
That’s better. That’s good enough.
I’m pleased with your spoken English.
I’m so sorry. It’s a great pity.
What a pity! That’s too bad.
I’m so sorry about your illness.
I’m sorry to hear that.
Help! How terrible! I’m afraid of that dog.
1.abide by(=be faithful to ; obey)忠于；遵守。
2. be absent from…. 缺席，不在
3. absence or mind(=being absent-minded) 心不在焉
4. absorb(=take up the attention of)吸引…的注意力(被动语态)be absorbed in 全神贯注于… 近义：be engrossed ; be lost in ; be rapt in ;be concentrated on ; be focused on ; be centered on
5. (be) abundant in(be rich in; be well supplied with) 富于,富有 6. access(to) (不可数名词) 能接近,进入,了解
7. by accident(=by chance, accidentally)偶然地,意外. Without accident(=safely) 安全地,
8. of one’s own accord(=without being asked; willingly; freely)自愿地 ,主 动地
9. in accord with 与…一致 . out of one’s accord with 同….不一致
10. with one accord (=with everybody agreeing)一致地
11. in accordance with (=in agreement with) 依照,根据
12. on one’s own account 1) 为了某人的缘故, 为了某人自己的利益 2) (=at one’s own risk) 自行负责 3) (=by oneself)依靠自己 on account 赊账; on account of 因为; on no account不论什么原因也不;of …account 有…..重要性.
13. take…into account(=consider)把...考虑进去
14. give sb. an account of 说明, 解释 (理由)
15. account for (=give an explanation or reason for) 解释, 说明.
16. on account of (=because of) 由于,因为.
17. on no account(=in no case, for no reason)绝不要,无论如何不要(放句首时句 子要倒装)
18. accuse…of…(=charge…with; blame sb. for sth. ; blame sth. on sb. ; complain about) 指控,控告
19. be accustomed to (=be in the habit of, be used to)习惯于.
20. be acquainted with(=to have knowledge of) 了解; (=to have met socially ) 熟悉
21. act on 奉行,按照…行动; act as 扮演; act for 代理
22. adapt oneself to(=adjust oneself to) 使自己适应于
23. adapt…(for) (=make sth. Suitable for a new need) 改编, 改写(以适应新的需要)
24. in addition (=besides) 此外, 又, 加之
25. in addition to(=as well as, besides, other than)除…外
26. adhere to (=abide by, conform to, comply with, cling to, insist on, pe rsist in, observe, opinion, belief ) 粘附; 坚持, 遵循
27. adjacent(=next to, close to) 毗邻的, 临近的
28. adjust..(to) (=change slightly)调节; 适应;
29. admit of (=be capable of, leave room for) …的可能，留有…的余地.
30. in advance (before in time) 预告, 事先.
31. to advantage 有利的,使优点更加突出地.
32. have an advantage over 胜过. have the advantage of 由于…处于有利条件 have the advantage of sb.知道某人所不知道的事
33. take advantage of (=make the best of, utilize, make use of, profit from, harness)利用.
34. agree with 赞同(某人意见) agree to 同意
35. in agreement (with) 同意, 一致
36. ahead of 在…之前, 超过…;……………. ahead of time 提前.
37. in the air 1)不肯定, 不具体. 2)在谣传中.
38. above all (=especially, most important of all) 尤其是, 最重要的.
39. in all (=counting everyone or everything, altogether) 总共, 总计
40. after all 毕竟,到底; (not) at all 一点也不; all at once(=suddenly)突然; once and for all 只此一次; above all 最重要的; first of all 首先; all in all 大体上说; be all in 累极了; all but 几乎.
41. allow for (=take into consideration, take into account) 考虑到, 估计到 .
42. amount to (=to be equal to) 总计, 等于.
43. answer for (undertake responsibility for, be liable for, take charge for) 对…负责.
44. answer to (=conform to) 适合,符合.
45. be anxious about 为…焦急不安; 或anxious for
46. apologize to sb. for sth. 为…向…道歉
47. appeal to sb. for sth. 为某事向某人呼吁. appeal to sb. 对某人有吸引力
48. apply to sb. for sth. 为…向…申请 ; apply for申请; apply to 适用.
49. apply to 与…有关;适用
50. approve of (=consent to, be in favor of, favor, agree to, consider good, right) 赞成, approve vt. 批准
51. arise from(=be caused by) 由…引起.
52. arrange for sb.sth. to do sth. 安排…做…
53. arrive on 到达; arrive at 到达某地(小地方);得出,作出; arrive in 到达某地(大地方);
54. be ashamed of (=feel shame, guilt or sorrow because of sth. done) 以… 为羞耻
55. assure sb. of sth. (=try to cause to believe or trust in sth.) 向…保证, 使…确信.
56. attach(to) (=to fix, fasten; join) 缚, 系 ,结
57. make an attempt at doing sth. (to do sth.) 试图做…
58. attend to (=give one’s attention, care and thought)注意,照顾;attend on(upon)(=wait upon, serve, look after) 侍候,照料
59. attitude to toward …对…的态度.看法
60. attribute…to…(=to believe sth. to be the result of…)把..归因于.., 认为..是..的结果
61. on the average (=on average, on an average) 平均
62. (be) aware of (=be conscious of , having knowledge or consciousness)意识到,知道.
63. at the back of (=behind) 在…后面
64. in the back of 在…后部(里面); on the back of 在…后部(外面); be on one’s back(=be ill in bed) 卧病不起.
65. at one’s back(=supporting or favoring sb.) 支持,维护; have sb. at one ’s back 有…支持, 有…作后台
66. turn one’s back on sb. (=turn away from sb. in an impolite way) 不理睬(某人),背弃,抛弃
67. behind one’s back 背着某人(说坏话)
68. be based on upon 基于
69. on the basis of 根据…, 在…基础上
70. beat…at 在…运动项目上打赢
71. begin with 以…开始. to begin with (=first of all) 首先, 第一(经常用于开始语)
72. on behalf of (=as the representative of) 以…名义
73. believe in(=have faith or trust in; consider sth.sb. to be true) 相信,依赖,信仰.
74. benefit (from) 受益,得到好处.
75. for the benefit of 为了…的利益(好处)
76. for the better 好转
77. get the better of (=defeat sb.) 打败, 胜过.
78. by birth 在出生上,论出身,按血统 at birth 在出生时; give birth to 出生
79. blame sb. for sth. 因…责备某人 . blame sth. on sb. 把…推在某人身上
80. in blossom开花(指树木) be in blossom开花(强调状态) come into blossom开花(强调动作)
81. on board 到船上, 在船上, 上火车或飞机
82. boast of (or about) 吹嘘
83. out of breath 喘不过气来
84. in brief(=in as few words as possible)简言之
85. in bulk 成批地,不散装的
86. take the floor 起立发言
87. on business 出差办事.
88. be busy with sth.于某事 。 be busy doing sth. 忙于做某事
89. last but one 倒数第二.
90. but for (=without) 要不是. 表示假设
91. buy sth. for…money 用多少钱买
92. be capable of 能够, 有能力 be capable of being +过去分词是能够被…的
93. in any case(=for love or money, at any rate, at any price, at any cost , whatever happens; anyhow)无论如何
94. in case (=for fear that) 万一;
95. in case of (=in the event of)如果发生…万一 in the case of 至于…, 就…而言
96. in no case在任何情况下都不(放句首倒装句)
97. be cautious of 谨防
98. center one’s attention on(=focus one’s attention on) 把某人的注意力集中在…上
99. be certain of (=be sure of) 有把握, 一定.
100. for certain of (=for sure )肯定地,有把握地
101. by chance(=accidentally, by accident)偶然
102. for a change换换环境(花样等)
103. charge sb. with …控告某人犯有…
104. in charge of (=responsible for) 负责(某事) in the charge of …由…管
105. take charge of (=to be or become responsible for)负责管理(照顾)
106. charge…for 因…索取(费用) , charge sb. with sth. 控告某人犯有…
107. round the clock(=all day and all night, usually without stopping) 昼夜不停地
108. comment on 评论
109. commit oneself to 使自己承担… commit sb. to prison把某人送进监狱; commit one’s idea to writing 把某人的想法写下来; commit a matter to a committee 把某事交给委员会讨论
110. in common (和…)有共同之处,共用. be common to sb. 是与某人所共有的
111. keep company with (=be friendly and go out together) 和…要好.
112. compare…with … 把…与…比较
113. compare…to… 把…比作…
114. by comparison 比较起来
115. in comparison with (=in contrast to) 和…比起来
116. compensate for (=give sth. to make up for) 补偿, 赔偿,弥补 compensate sb. for sth. 赔偿,弥补
117. complain of (or about)抱怨;诉苦;控告;complain about 抱怨某人或事情; complain to sb. about sth. (or sb.) 向某人抱怨…; complain (抱怨); complement (补充); compliment (恭维)
118. comply with (=act in accordance with a demand, order, rule etc.) 遵守, 依从
119. conceive of (think of, imagine, consider) 想象,设想
120. concentrate on (or upon) 集中,专心
121. be concerned with (=about) 与…有关
122. concern oneself about with 关心
123. in conclusion(=as the last thing)最后一点; at the conclusion of 当…结束时;
124. condemn sb. to 判决
125. on condition that (=if)以…为条件, 假如. in that = because因为; now that = since既然 for all that = although 尽管
126. in out of condition (=thoroughly healthy or fit not fit) 健康状况好不好 . in good (bad) condition处于良好(坏)状态
127. confess(to)(=admit a fault, crime, or sth. wrong)承认, 供认; confess to a crime 承认罪行.
128. confide in (=to talk freely to sb. about one’s secret) 对…讲真心话, 依赖
129. in confidence 推心置腹地; with confidence 满怀信心地; have confidence in 对…有信心
130. confidence in sb. sth. 对…的信赖
131. be confident of 有信心; confidential 机密的
132. confine…to… 把…限制在某范围内
133. confirm sb. in 使某人更坚定(信念等)
134. conform to (=be in agreement with, comply with) 符合,遵照,遵守;1)obey 服从; 2) observe; 3)comply with照…办; 4)keep to遵循; 5)abide by服从;6)stick to按..做
135. be confronted with(=be brought face to face with) 面对, 面临
136. congratulate sb. on 祝贺
137. in connection with(=with regard to)关于,
138. be conscious of(=be aware of)觉察,知道
139. consent to(=give agreement to permission)同意
140. in consequence (=as a result) 结果
141. in consequence of (=as a consequence of)由于…的结果
1. 142. under consideration 在考虑中
143. in consideration of (=in return for, on account of, because of )由于
144. on no consideration(in no case)无论如何也不
145.take…into consideration (=take account of, take…into account)考虑到, 把 …考虑进去
146. considerate (=thoughtful of the needs) 体贴的, 考虑他人需要的, considerable相当大的,值得考虑的
147. consist of(=be composed of)由…组成的. consist in主要在于. consist with符合,与…一致
148. be consistent with(=be in agreement with)与…一致. be consistent in一贯的 ,
149. consult sb. on about sth. 向…征求…方面的意见, 就…向…请教
150. to one’s heart’s content尽情地,痛痛快快
151. be content with(=be satisfied with) 满足于be content to do sth. 愿意做某事
152. contrary to (=in opposition to) 与…相反
153. on the contrary 相反
154. contrast…with 把…与…相对(对照)
155. in contrast towith 和…形成对比 by contrast 对比之下
156. contribute to 有助于
157. under control (被)控制住 out of control无法控制
158. at one’s convenience(=where and when it suits one) 在方便的时间或地点 .be convenient to for 对…方便
159. convince sb. of (=cause sb. to believe or feel certain; to persuade sb.) 使某人确信,try to persuade sb. to do sth.劝说某人做…
160. cope with(=deal with, try to find a solution to)应付, 处理
161. in the corner(of)在角落里;on(at) the comer of a street在街道拐弯处;round the comer拐过弯; be in a tight corner陷入困境
162. correspond (with) ( =exchange letters regularly) 通信
163. correspond to 相当于 . correspond with 符合,一致
164. at all costs不惜任何代价 . at the cost of 以…为代价
165. a matter of course 理所当然的事